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What is Scoliosis Edit

Scoliosis is a lateral (toward the side) curving of the spine in the part which is normally a straight vertical line of the spine.  A proper spine should show a little roundness in the upper back and should show a degree of swayback (inward curvature) in the lower back. When a person with a normal spine is viewed from the back, the spine appears straight. When a person has scoliosis the spine appears curved from the back. Generally it is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.

Arthritis-scoliosis scoliosisspine

How does Scoliosis Affect the Skeletal System Edit

Scoliosis is generally a minor issue where the spine is curved and the spine can function normally however, when the curve gets gradually larger, the back muscles begin to struggle to keep the person standing up. Along with this, the pressures on the disks in between the vertebrae can result in them getting worn out easier which results in back pain. If the curve gets extremely large, it can cause severe deformities in the lungs making it harder to breath and the heart which causes it to pump slower. Lastly the skeletal system is significantly affected as the curve in the spine can case the deformity of other bones such as the rib cage. 

Causes for the Types of Scoliosis Edit

There are many types and causes of scoliosis, including:

• Congenital scoliosis: Caused by a bone abnormality present at birth.

• Neuromuscular scoliosis: A result of abnormal muscles or nerves. Frequently seen in people with spinal bifida or cerebral palsy or in those with various conditions that are accompanied by, or result in, paralysis.

• Degenerative scoliosis: This may result from traumatic (from an injury or illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).

• Idiopathic scoliosis: The most common type of scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, has no specific identifiable cause. There are many theories, but none have been found to be conclusive. There is, however, strong evidence that idiopathic scoliosis is inherited.

Signs and Symptoms Edit

Signs and Symptoms of Scoliosis include:

·       -Uneven shoulders

·       -One shoulder blade that appears more prominent than the other

·       -Uneven waist

·       -One hip higher than the other

If a scoliosis curve gets worse, the spine will also twist or rotate. This causes the ribs on one side of the body to stick out farther than on the other side. 

Diagnosis Edit

Scoliosis can be found at any age but is specifically common among children therefore, it is usually found at regular check-ups with the pediatrician. Most scoliosis curves are initially detected on school screening exams, by a child's pediatrician or family doctor, or by a parent. They perform a test called Adam’s bend test to determine whether or not there is any asymmetry in the spine. Following-up with a physician for a clinical evaluation and an X-ray is the next step. The Physician will perform more tests and check and make sure there are no neurological deficits which can be rare causes of spinal movement. The x-ray confirms the diagnosis of Scoliosis and also checks on the magnitude of the spinal curvature. Some clues that a child may have scoliosis include uneven shoulders, a prominent shoulder blade, uneven waist, or leaning to one side. The diagnosis of scoliosis and the determination of the type of scoliosis are then made by a careful bone exam and an X-ray to evaluate the magnitude of the curve.

Treatment Edit

In most cases, Scoliosis curves are mild and do not require continuous treatment. As the child grows into adolescence it is important to monitor and observe the changes as well. Treatment can vary based on sex, location of curve and severity of the curve. Treatment includes bracing which prevents further curving of the spine rather than curing Scoliosis and in more severe cases, surgery named spinal fusion is required.

References 

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scoliosis/basics/treatment/con-20030140

http://www.spine-health.com/conditions/scoliosis/scoliosis-diagnosis

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scoliosis/basics/symptoms/con-20030140

http://allaboutscoliosis.weebly.com/affects-of-scoliosis.html

http://www.spine-health.com/video/scoliosis-video-what-scoliosis 

http://www.webmd.com/

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